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libya president gaddafi  등록일  2021-01-25

Italians and what remained of the Jewish community were expelled from the country and their property confiscated in October 1970. In 1972, Libya joined the Federation of Arab Republics with Egypt and Syria but the intended union of pan-Arabic states never had the intended success, and was effectively dormant after 1973. Several other nations allied with Gaddafi called the uprising and intervention a "plot" by Western powers to loot Libya's resources. But according to volume two of Gaddafi's Green Book, which appeared in 1978, private retail trade, rent, and wages were forms of exploitation that should be abolished. [234] Gaddafi later came to regret his alliance with Amin, openly criticizing him as a "fascist" and a "show-off". Beginning in 1969, Colonel Muammar Gaddafi determined Libya 's foreign policy. Private enterprise was virtually eliminated, largely replaced by a centrally controlled economy. The centerpiece of the new system was the General People's Congress (GPC), a national representative body intended to replace the RCC. The second dealt with Gaddafi's beliefs regarding socialism, while the third explored social issues regarding the family and the tribe. [432], Gaddafi has been described as a womanizer. The full lifting of the sanctions, contingent on Libya's compliance with the remaining UNSCRs, including acceptance of responsibility for the actions of its officials and payment of appropriate compensation, was passed 12 September 2003, explicitly linked to the release of up to $2.7 billion in Libyan funds to the families of the 1988 attack's 270 victims. [215] Gaddafi was also frustrated by the slow pace of social reform on women's issues, and in 1979 launched a Revolutionary Women's Formation to replace the more gradualist Libyan General Women's Federation. [130] Calling on the Arab states to wage "continuous war" against Israel, in 1970 he initiated a Jihad Fund to finance anti-Israeli militants. [323], Libya's economy witnessed increasing privatization; although rejecting the socialist policies of nationalized industry advocated in The Green Book, government figures asserted that they were forging "people's socialism" rather than capitalism. [330] In 2010, plans were announced that would have seen half the Libyan economy privatized over the following decade,[331] these plans appear to have been soon abandoned however, as the companies that the government stated they were going to float on the stock market, among them the National Commercial Bank and the Libyan Iron and Steel Company were never floated and remained 100% state-owned. [409] He desired unity across the Islamic world,[410] and encouraged the propagation of the faith elsewhere; on a 2010 visit to Italy, he paid a modelling agency to find 200 young Italian women for a lecture he gave urging them to convert. He presided over the eight-member Council of Ministers, of whom six, like Maghrabi, were civilians and two – Adam Said Hawwaz and Musa Ahmad – were military officers. They tortured him for days, and he eventually died in France. The U.S. rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. He governed Libya as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then as the "Brotherly Leader" of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011. The US shot down two Libyan Su-22 planes which were on an intercept course. Beginning in 1977, "revolutionary committees" were organized and assigned the task of "absolute revolutionary supervision of people's power"; that is, they were to guide the people's committees, "raise the general level of political consciousness and devotion to revolutionary ideals". [68], Gaddafi's World Revolutionary Center (WRC) near Benghazi became a training center for groups backed by Gaddafi. [77], In the Philippines, Libya backed the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, which continues to carry out acts of violence in an effort to establish a separatist Islamic state in the southern Philippines. [302] In September 2001, Gaddafi publicly condemned the September 11 attacks on the US by al-Qaeda, expressing sympathy with the victims and calling for Libyan involvement in the US-led War on Terror against militant Islamism. In early 1979, Gaddafi warned opposition leaders to return home immediately or face "liquidation." [149] Above these remained Gaddafi and the RCC, who remained responsible for all major decisions. On 5 April 1986, Libyan agents bombed "La Belle" nightclub in West Berlin, killing three and injuring 229. [404], Gaddafi rejected the secularist approach to Arab nationalism that had been pervasive in Syria,[405] with his revolutionary movement placing a far stronger emphasis on Islam than previous Arab nationalist movements had done. [75] [26] Education in Libya was not free, but his father thought it would greatly benefit his son despite the financial strain. In December Jalloud successfully increased the price of Libyan oil. It is often left untranslated in English, with the long-form name thus rendered as Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. He had a large heart and charisma, maybe not so much for western leaders, but certainly for Libya’s own population. [46], In April 1966, he was assigned to the United Kingdom for further training; over nine months he underwent an English-language course at Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, an Army Air Corps signal instructors course in Bovington Camp, Dorset, and an infantry signal instructors course at Hythe, Kent. Image: REUTERS via Libyan TV. The country consistently ranked as the African nation with the highest HDI, standing at 0.755 in 2010, which was 0.041 higher than the next highest African HDI that same year. The term does not occur in this sense in Muammar Gaddafi's Green Book of 1975. Although claims have been made that they knew of Gaddafi's Free Officers Movement, they have since claimed ignorance, stating that they were instead monitoring Abdul Aziz Shalhi's Black Boots revolutionary group. [448] One of those Cojean interviewed, a woman named Soraya, claimed that Gaddafi kept her imprisoned in a basement for six years, where he repeatedly raped her, urinated on her, and forced her to watch pornography, drink alcohol, and snort cocaine. Within days of the coup, however, Hasan publicly renounced all rights to the throne, stated his support for the new government, and called on the people to accept it without violence. The priority of the Legion was first Chad, and then Sudan. [34], Gaddafi organized demonstrations and distributed posters criticizing the monarchy. [131] In June 1972 Gaddafi created the First Nasserite Volunteers Centre to train anti-Israeli guerrillas. Within a few months, such committees were found all across Libya. It is pumping large resources of water from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System to both urban populations and new irrigation projects around the country. In its initial proclamation on 1 September,[14] the RCC declared the country to be a free and sovereign state called the Libyan Arab Republic, which would proceed "in the path of freedom, unity, and social justice, guaranteeing the right of equality to its citizens, and opening before them the doors of honorable work." British police investigations identified two Libyans – Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah – as the chief suspects, and in November 1991 issued a declaration demanding that Libya hand them over. [49] He later related that while he travelled to England believing it more advanced than Libya, he returned home "more confident and proud of our values, ideals and social character". [30] Growing up, Gaddafi witnessed significant events rock the Arab world, including the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the Suez Crisis of 1956, and the short-lived existence of the United Arab Republic (UAR) between 1958 and 1961. Geographically based committees were formed at the governorate, municipal, and zone (lowest) levels. [40] Under Idris, Libya's armed forces were trained by the British military; this angered Gaddafi, who viewed the British as imperialists, and accordingly, he refused to learn English and was rude to the British officers, ultimately failing his exams. [208] Dominated by revolutionary zealots, most of whom were youths, the Revolutionary Committees were led by Mohammad Maghgoub and a Central Coordinating Office based in Tripoli and met with Gaddafi annually. [18], Along with other nomadic Bedouins, the family were illiterate and kept no birth records. "[218], The Jamahiriya's radical direction earned the government many enemies. This approach regarded both the US and the Soviet Union as imperialist and thus rejected Western capitalism as well as Marxist-Leninist atheism. Libya was accused in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland; UN sanctions were imposed in 1992. More-detailed information was retrieved years later when Stasi archives were investigated by the reunited Germany. [490] One of the most prominent examples of this was a massacre that took place in Abu Salim prison in June 1996; Human Rights Watch estimated that 1,270 prisoners were massacred. [447] After Gaddafi's death, the French journalist Annick Cojean published a book alleging that Gaddafi had had sexual relations with women, some in their early teenage years, who had been specially selected for him. [43] Gaddafi travelled around Libya collecting intelligence and developing connections with sympathizers, but the government's intelligence services ignored him, considering him little threat. Although oil drastically improved the Libyan government's finances, resentment began to build over the increased concentration of the nation's wealth in the hands of the noble King Idris. Libya became the first country outside the Soviet bloc to receive the supersonic MiG-25 combat fighters, but Soviet-Libyan relations remained relatively distant. [408] He insisted that Islamic law should be the basis for the law of the state, blurring any distinction between the religious and secular realms. The government in Tripoli had lost control of half of Libya by the end of February,[113][114] but as of mid-September Gaddafi remained in control of several parts of Fezzan. [192] On rare occasions, the GPC opposed Gaddafi's suggestions, sometimes successfully; notably, when Gaddafi called on primary schools to be abolished, believing that homeschooling was healthier for children, the GPC rejected the idea. [265], The late 1980s saw a series of liberalizing economic reforms within Libya designed to cope with the decline in oil revenues. [301], In 1999, Libya began secret talks with the British government to normalize relations. This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 19:29. Despite the variations of the stories, the campaign was successful, and a large proportion of the Western press reported the government's stories as facts. The instrument for doing this was the people's committee. [77], Reportedly, Gaddafi was a major financier of the "Black September Movement" which perpetrated the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics. [209] Membership of the Revolutionary Committees was drawn from within the BPCs. He kept us ignorant and blindfolded". [36], During the late 1970s, some exiled Libyans[who?] [67], Gaddafi was a strong supporter of Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe. According to Lisa Anderson, president of the American University in Cairo and an expert on Libya, said that under Gaddafi more women attended university and had "dramatically" more employment opportunities. It is the Libyan people's responsibility to liquidate such scums who are distorting Libya's image abroad. [16] Trade unions were incorporated into the ASU and strikes outlawed. The latter joined those already alienated, some of whom had begun to leave the country. [83] Production costs often surpassed the value of the produce and thus Libyan agricultural production remained in deficit, relying heavily on state subsidies. Many criticized his attempts to encourage women to enter traditionally male-only sectors of society, such as the armed forces. [415] Although the early policies pursued by his government were state capitalist in orientation, by 1978 he believed that private ownership of the means of production was exploitative and thus he sought to move Libya away from capitalism and towards socialism. Fears of resistance in Cyrenaica and Fezzan proved unfounded. In 1999, Libya fulfilled one of the UNSCR requirements by surrendering two Libyans suspected in connection with the bombing for trial before a Scottish court in the Netherlands. [95] The health sector was also expanded; by 1978, Libya had 50 per cent more hospitals than it had in 1968, while the number of doctors had increased from 700 to over 3000 in that decade. He believed in opposing Western imperialism and colonialism in the Arab world, including any Western expansionism through the form of Israel. [38], Gaddafi briefly studied history at the University of Libya in Benghazi before dropping out to join the military. [51] When Prime minister Sharif refused Gaddafi's demand, Gaddafi disrespected him, calling him a "Corrupt politician", a term which insulted and surprised Sharif. [233] Another key ally was Uganda, and in 1979, Gaddafi sent 2,500 troops into Uganda to defend the regime of President Idi Amin from Tanzanian invaders. [58], Gaddafi announced that he had won a spectacular military victory over the US and the country was officially renamed the "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah". The new government categorically rejected communism – in large part because it was atheist – and officially espoused an Arab interpretation of socialism that integrated Islamic principles with social, economic, and political reform. There is no electricity bill in Libya, electricity is free for all its citizens. [246], In 1981, the new US President, Ronald Reagan, pursued a hard-line approach to Libya, claiming it to be a puppet regime of the Soviet Union. British Petroleum rejected as inadequate a Libyan offer of compensation, and the British treasury banned Libya from participation in the sterling area. [217] The measure was hugely controversial, and voted down by the GPC in February 1983. In response, Gaddafi used repressive measures, using his personal Revolutionary Guard Corps to crush riots and Islamist activism during the 1990s. But it hid the information from the international organisations.' [107] The ASU recognized the RCC as its "Supreme Leading Authority", and was designed to further revolutionary enthusiasm throughout the country. Public education in the country became free and primary education compulsory for both sexes. There is some proof that the Egyptian government was considering a war against Libya as early as 1974. He was killed shortly afterwards. [152] In this respect, it was similar to the Three Worlds Theory developed by China's political leader Mao Zedong. The name of Libya was changed several times during Gaddafi's tenure as leader. [287], At the 20th century's end, Gaddafi—frustrated by the failure of his pan-Arab ideals—increasingly rejected Arab nationalism in favour of pan-Africanism, emphasizing Libya's African identity. [212], In 1979, the committees began the redistribution of land in the Jefara plain, continuing through 1981. A proposal was also made to establish a "people's army" by substituting a national militia, being formed in the late 1970s, for the national army. [197] Within a year he was backtracking, announcing that sharia was inappropriate for the Jamahiriya because it guaranteed the protection of private property, contravening The Green Book's socialism. [97] Gaddafi's regime opened up a wide range of educational and employment opportunities for women, although these primarily benefited a minority in the urban middle-classes. Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état. He outlined his Third International Theory that year in The Green Book. [119], After the 1969 coup, representatives of the Four Powers—France, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union—were called to meet RCC representatives. [354] On 30 April a NATO airstrike killed Gaddafi's sixth son and three of his grandsons in Tripoli. During the 1970s and 1980s, Libya's unsuccessful border conflicts with Egypt and Chad, support for foreign militants, and alleged responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing in Scotland left it increasingly isolated on the world stage. To punish Gaddafi, the authorities expelled him and his family from Sabha. Most families were banned from owning more than one house, while former rental properties were expropriated by the state and sold to the tenants at a heavily subsidized price. [352] Ignoring this, Qatar sent hundreds of troops to support the dissidents and, along with France and the United Arab Emirates, provided weaponry and military training to the NTC. [223] Although nearby nations like Syria and Israel also employed hit squads, Gaddafi was unusual in publicly bragging about his administration's use of them;[224] in 1980, he ordered all dissidents to return home or be "liquidated wherever you are". His administration insisted that the US and the UK remove their military bases from Libya, with Gaddafi proclaiming that "the armed forces which rose to express the people's revolution [will not] tolerate living in their shacks while the bases of imperialism exist in Libyan territory." [183], —Libyan Studies scholar Ronald Bruce St. John[203], In December 1978, Gaddafi stepped down as Secretary-General of the GPC, announcing his new focus on revolutionary rather than governmental activities; this was part of his new emphasis on separating the apparatus of the revolution from the government. The discovery of significant oil reserves in 1959 and the subsequent income from petroleum sales enabled the Kingdom of Libya to transition from one of the world's poorest nations to a wealthy state. Gaddafi was found hiding in a culvert west of Sirte and captured by National Transitional Council forces. Muammar Gaddafi threw the UN general assembly into chaos today when he effectively hijacked the podium to make a rambling, unscripted speech. In the scope of their administrative and regulatory tasks and the method of their members' selection, the people's committees purportedly embodied the concept of direct democracy that Gaddafi propounded in the first volume of The Green Book, which appeared in 1976. [61], Gaddafi also aided Jean-Bédel Bokassa, the Emperor of the Central African Empire. [203], Gaddafi was staunchly anti-Marxist,[420] and in 1973 declared that "it is the duty of every Muslim to combat" Marxism because it promotes atheism. The same concept lay behind proposals to create a new political structure composed of "people's congresses." [138] Though many of these groups were labelled "terrorists" by critics of their activities, Gaddafi rejected this characterization, instead considering them to be revolutionaries who were engaged in liberation struggles. For some Libyans, the revolution brought about some necessary political changes. Neither of the officers was a member of the RCC. On 19 October 1973, Libya was the first Arab nation to issue an oil embargo against the United States after US President Richard Nixon announced the US would provide Israel with a $2.2 billion military aid program during the Yom Kippur War. [57] They met no serious resistance and wielded little violence against the monarchists. [430] More widely, he was often regarded as being "bizarre, irrational or quixotic". [118] Eventually, the aircraft carriers USS Enterprise and Charles de Gaulle arrived off the coast and provided the enforcers with a rapid-response capability. [85] The RCC followed with the Tripoli Agreement of 20 March 1971, in which they secured income tax, back-payments and better pricing from the oil corporations; these measures brought Libya an estimated $1 billion in additional revenues in its first year. [199] He made particular requests when travelling to foreign countries. [122], Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Gaddafi as permanent "Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution", Gulf of Sidra incidents and US air strikes, Gaddafi and international militant resistance movements, International sanctions after the Lockerbie bombing (1992–2003), Normalization of international relations (2003–2010), 2011 civil war and collapse of Gaddafi's government, الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية, إن الحركات التاريخية هي الحركات الجماهيرية. [400] He rallied against Jews in many of his speeches, with Blundy and Lycett claiming that his anti-Semitism was "almost Hitlerian". [435], Gaddafi regarded personal appearance as important,[436] with Blundy and Lycett referring to him as "extraordinarily vain. The NTC initially claimed he died from injuries sustained in a firefight when loyalist forces attempted to free him, although a graphic video of his last moments show rebel fighters beating him and one of them sodomizing him with a bayonet bef [65][66] Over the years, Gaddafi came to be seen as a hero in much of Africa due to his revolutionary image. [445] Starting in the 1980s, he travelled with his all-female Amazonian Guard, who were allegedly sworn to a life of celibacy. Filled with politically astute zealots, the ubiquitous revolutionary committees in 1979 assumed control of BPC elections. [50] In July 1978, Libya and India signed a memorandum of understanding to cooperate in peaceful applications of nuclear energy as part of India's Atom of Peace policy. Many similarities as a result of claiming the territory and losses from the stage. Vulnerable to dissension at a time of crisis, as leader of ''. 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